In the developed system, first, images of milled rice grader samples are captured. The image processing operations are then executed to eliminate undesirable noises from images. After kernel segmentation, a primary feature vector is created based on some shape, size and color features. To have a high classification accuracy, it is necessary to prepare a proper input vector for the classifiers. For this purpose, the primary extracted features are subjected to a correlation-based feature selection procedure to reject the inferior features. Finally, the best classifier is selected for milled rice grading by examining four commonly used metaheuristic approaches. The entire applied methodology is described in the following sections.
Whole polished rice grains were ground using cryogenic and hammer milling to understand the mechanisms of degradation of starch granule structure, whole (branched) molecular structure, and individual branches of the molecules during particle size reduction (grinding). Hammer milling caused greater degradation to starch granules than cryogenic milling when the grains were ground to a similar volume-median diameter. Molecular degradation of starch was not evident in the cryogenically milled flours, but it was observed in the hammer-milled flours with preferential cleavage of longer (amylose) branches. This can be attributed to the increased grain brittleness and fracturability at cryogenic temperatures, reducing the mechanical energy required to diminish the grain size and thus reducing the probability of chain scission. The results indicate, for the first time, that branching, whole molecule, and granule structures of starch can be independently altered by varying grinding conditions, such as grinding force and temperature.
Rice is a member of the grass family (Gramineae). There are more that 10,000 species of grasses distributed among 600 genera. Grasses occur worldwide in a variety of habitats. They are dominant species in such ecosystems as prairies and steppes, and they are an important source of forage for herbivorous animals. Many grass species are also primary agricultural crops for humans. As well as rice, they include maize, wheat, sorghum, barley, oats, and sugar cane.
Since it has been such an important grain worldwide, the domestication and cultivation of rice is one of the most important events in history that has had the greatest impact on the most people. When and where the domestication of rice took place is not specifically known, but new archaeological evidence points to an area along the Yangtze River in central China and dates back as far as 11,000 years. Researched by a team of Japanese and Chinese archaeologists and presented at the 1996 International Symposium on Agriculture and Civilizations in Nara, Japan, radiocarbon testing of 125 samples of rice grains and husks, as well as of rice impressions in pottery, from sites located along a specific portion of the Yangtze unanimously indicate a median age of over 11,000 years. Another discovery of possibly the oldest settlement found in China, which is located closely upstream from the other sites, gives credence to the new findings.
For small capacity, hand work is ok, can make labor use well, while if for large capacity, hand work may can not satisfy with the machine work, and too much labor work together may a little waste of time, and also can not promise work efficiency, so a rice destoner is necessary, designed special for the destoner work, mechanical work can promise work efficiency and also can clean the stone out better than hand work, a good pre work partner for the rice husker machine.
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