A waveguide is an electromagnetic feed line used in microwave communications, broadcasting and radar installation. It consists of a rectangular or cylindrical metal tube or pipe. The electromagnetic field in it propagates lengthwise. Waveguides are most commonly used with horn antenna and dish antenna.
An electromagnetic field can propagate along a waveguide in two common modes they are known as transverse-magnetic(TM) and transverse-electric (TE). To function properly, a waveguide must have a certain minimum diameter relative to the wavelength of the signal. If the waveguide is very narrow or the frequency is very low in both the situation the electromagnetic fields cannot propagate. Usually the manufacturer has all necessary bends, twists and straight sections that are essential for the layout of any waveguide run.
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