CRISPR CAS9 and Gene Editing

Posted March 30, 2018 by drakejones1

A few years ago, Ayal Hendel et al (doi:10.1038/nbt.3290) published results revealing that chemical alterations to sgRNA enhance gene editing in primary cells.

Understanding RNA
Everybody knows a little bit about DNA. Everybody has seen a diagram of it and they know how significant it is. Item is not everyone knows about its own cousin RNA. RNA is just as critical as DNA since without RNA, DNA would not be in a position to do anything. RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid unlike DNA that stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. The difference in title simply says that DNA lacks an oxygen one oxygen atom over RNA. But naturally there are more differences than that.

First if you have noticed a diagram of DNA then you will know it resembles a winding ladder. RNA appears like DNA except its own cut down the center. Therefore it looks like a spiraling thread foundations sticking out towards the center. The spiral like DNA is made from sugar and phosphate. Another difference is where the four letters of DNA is A G C and T the four letters that are in RNA are A G C and U. The U is a variation of Thymine (T) called Uracil.

RNA is made by a process known as transcribing. The practice of transcribing happens in 4 steps. The first thing is when the DNA "unzips" as there bonds split. The second step is when the free nucleotides (the coil's) that will develop into the RNA setup with complementary DNA foundations. The next step happens when the spirals take shape from the glucose and phosphate and becomes the backbone. Then the fourth step is when the untwisted bonds that happen between the RNA and the unzipped DNA ladder break. At which point the newly formed RNA leaves through the nuclear pores. At which point it does its own workout in the cytoplasm.

There's more than one kind of RNA. The first type is mRNA (messenger RNA). MRNA is the sort of RNA you probably consider when you think of RNA. The task of mRNA is to visit the ribosomes of a mobile using a genetic message imprinted into it to inform the ribosomes to create many proteins. Then there is the none-coding RNA named ncRNA. This type of RNA isn't encoded by DNA but instead other RNA. The third type of RNA is called Transfer-Message RNA (tmRNA) tmRNA is used by specific viruses and bacteria.

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Last Updated March 30, 2018