Water quality analysis is also called water chemical analysis. That is, the content of various chemical components in water is determined by chemical and physical methods. Water quality analysis is divided into three types: simple analysis, full analysis and special analysis. The simple analysis is carried out in the field, and the analysis items are few, but the requirements are fast and timely. It is suitable for preliminary understanding of the main chemical composition of groundwater in various aquifers in a large area; the items of special analysis are determined according to the needs of specific tasks, such as water When searching for ores, high-precision spectrometers are used to analyze some of the metal ions they are looking for, and when radioactivity is measured in water, certain radioactive elements are analyzed. Method and process to identify and determine the content of substances and chemical components contained in water.
Introduction to Water Quality Analysis
Humans are inseparable from life and production activities. The quality of drinking water quality is closely related to human health. With the social and economic development, scientific progress and the improvement of people's living standards, people continue to develop and improve their daily life. Since the establishment of drinking water quality standards is related to many factors such as people ’s living habits, culture, economic conditions, scientific and technological development levels, water resources and water quality status, not only between countries, but also between different regions of the same country There are differences in drinking water quality requirements.
Water quality analysis items include measuring water temperature, identifying water color, turbidity, transparency, smell and taste of water; analyzing calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, carbonate, bicarbonate, pH in water, Dissolved oxygen, oxygen consumption, total hardness, etc., calculate the total amount of ions, that is, salinity, and analyze to determine the type of water. If necessary, the biological protoplasm, trace elements and dissolved gases in the water are also analyzed. Water quality analysis methods usually use chemical analysis methods, and the new methods that are being adopted are developing in a continuous and automated direction.
Test reference items
If the color of drinking water is greater than 15 degrees, most people can detect it, and when it is greater than 30 degrees, people feel disgusted. The standard specifies that the color of drinking water should not exceed 15 degrees. A
It is an expression of the optical properties of water samples. It is used to indicate the degree of water clarity and turbidity. It is one of the most important indicators to measure the quality of water quality, and it is also an important basis for assessing the purification efficiency of water treatment equipment and evaluating the state of water treatment technology. The reduction of turbidity means that the content of organic matter, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms in the water body is reduced, which can not only improve the disinfection and sterilization effect, but also help to reduce the production of halogenated organic matter.
Smell and smell
The generation of water odor is mainly the presence of organic matter, which may be caused by the performance of increased biological activity or industrial pollution. A change in the normal odor of public water supply may be a sign of a change in raw water quality or insufficient water treatment.
Residual chlorine refers to the amount of chlorine remaining in the water after being disinfected by chlorination. The continuous sterilization ability in the water can prevent the self-pollution of the water supply pipeline and ensure the quality of the water supply.
Refers to the amount of oxygen required by chemical oxidants to oxidize organic pollutants in water. The higher the chemical oxygen consumption, the more organic pollutants in the water. Organic pollutants in water mainly come from the discharge of domestic sewage or industrial wastewater, and the decay and decomposition of animals and plants into the water body.
Total number of bacteria
The bacteria contained in the water come from the corpses of air, soil, sewage, garbage and animals and plants. The types of bacteria in the water are diverse, including pathogenic bacteria. The standard of drinking water in China is that the total number of bacteria in 1ml of water does not exceed 100.
It is an indicator bacteria of fecal pollution, and the situation detected from it can indicate whether there is fecal pollution in the water and the degree of pollution. In the process of water purification, after the disinfection treatment, if the total coliform index can meet the requirements of drinking water standards, it means that the original pathogens of other pathogens are basically killed. The standard is no more than 3 / L in the test.
It more closely reflects the degree of food contamination by human and animal feces than coliform bacteria, and is also an indicator of water fecal contamination.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a representative bacterium of the genus Escherichia. It is generally non-pathogenic and is a resident bacterium in the intestines of humans and animals, which can cause extraintestinal infections under certain conditions. Some serotype strains are highly pathogenic and cause diarrhea, collectively referred to as pathogenic E. coli. Enterobacteriaceae are a group of G-bacilli with similar biological characteristics, mostly inhabiting the intestines of humans and animals. Escherichia (Escherichia) is one of them, including a variety of bacteria, clinically Escherichia coli is the most common. E. coli, commonly known as E. coli, is a normal parasitic bacterium in the large intestine of all mammals. On the one hand, it can synthesize vitamins B and K for absorption by the body. On the other hand, it can inhibit the excessive proliferation of spoilage bacteria, pathogenic bacteria and fungi. But when they leave the parasitic part of the intestine and enter other parts of the body, they can cause infection. Some strains are pathogenic, causing intestinal or urinary tract infections. In short, E. coli = E. coli.
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