Among the nutrients needed by human body, vitamins are effective in maintaining health and preventing diseases. By participating in the body's material and energy metabolism, it regulates the physiological and biochemical processes, thereby maintaining the normal physiological activities of the human body, and has the reputation of "life catalyst".
What is vitamin?
Vitamins, as the name suggests, are "life-sustaining nutrients". Vitamins participate in human body material and energy metabolism through enzymes, regulate physiological and biochemical processes, and maintain normal physiological activities of the human body. A lack of any vitamin in the human body may cause diseases and even life-threatening. It can be said that there is no continuation of life without vitamins.
Vitamins are divided into two categories:
1. Fat-soluble vitamins
They include vitamins A, D, E, K. They often coexist with lipids in food, and the absorption process requires the participation of fats. If the intake is too much, it can cause poisoning; if the intake is insufficient, the corresponding deficiency symptoms appear slowly; the urine load test cannot be used to evaluate the nutritional status.
2. Water-soluble vitamins
They include vitamin B family and vitamin C. They are stored in a small amount in the body, and their original form or metabolites can be excreted through urine. Generally, it is non-toxic, and poisoning occurs only when a very large amount is ingested; if the intake is too small, symptoms of deficiency can appear quickly. Here is a brief list of vitamin b family:
2.1. Vitamin B1 (thiamine). Its physiological functions can promote the oxidation of sugar in the body and increase appetite. Lack of vitamin B1 can easily lead to polyneuritis, beriberi, and gastrointestinal dysfunction.
2.2. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). Its physiological function is to form the component of the yellow enzyme prosthetic group, which plays the role of transferring hydrogen in the biological oxidation process. Lack of vitamin B2, prone to suffer from angular cheilitis, glossitis, keratitis, scrotum.
2.3. Vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide). Its physiological function is to form the components of Coenzyme I and II, which are necessary for the respiration of cells. Lack of vitamin B3 can lead to mangy, dermatitis, diarrhea and neuritis.
2.4. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid). Its physiological function is the constituent of Coenzyme A. No deficiency has been found yet.
2.5. Vitamin B6. Its physiological function is to constitute the coenzyme component of amino acid transaminase and decarboxylase. No deficiency has been found and it can be used for antiemetics.
2.6. Vitamin B7. Studies have shown that the role of vitamin B7 also includes helping diabetic patients control blood sugar levels and preventing nerve damage caused by the disease.
2.7. Vitamin B9 (folic acid). Its physiological function is related to the maturation of the red ball. Lack of vitamin folic acid can cause macrocytic anemia.
2.8. Vitamin B12. Its physiological function is related to the maturation of the red ball. Lack of vitamin B12 can cause macrocytic anemia and pernicious anemia.
2.9. Choline. The main role of choline is to help transmit nerve impulses, process learning, memory and sleep processes, and help form the membrane between cells.
2.10. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid. Its physiological function is to participate in the formation of intercellular substance and cell metabolism. Lack of vitamin C can cause bleeding gums, subcutaneous bleeding, and severe scurvy.
As an indispensable nutrient for the human body, vitamins have the following characteristics:
Although vitamins are essential nutrients for the body to maintain normal functions, the human body can only synthesize a few vitamins, and most of the vitamins needed are obtained by food.
The traceability of vitamins is mainly reflected in two aspects: on the one hand, it means that the human body requires very little vitamins, and the proportion of vitamins in the diet is only a few hundred thousandths, and some even only a few parts per million or a few ten thousandths; on the other hand, it means that the content of vitamins in the human body is also very small, but it is also an essential element for maintaining life.
Vitamins are of irreplaceable importance in the process of regulating physiological activities. With only a few vitamins, they can play a great role in the human body, and certain vitamins are also responsible for regulating the synthesis and decomposition of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the body. If vitamins are lacking, they will affect the normal function of these substances in the human body. The function of this disease may even cause corresponding diseases. For example, night blindness is mainly due to a lack of vitamin A, and scurvy is mainly due to a lack of vitamin C.
The directness of vitamins is reflected in their non-digestion and absorption characteristics. It does not need to be metabolized when entering the human body.
Vitamins are necessary for the body to transmit energy, but they do not provide energy by themselves.
Certain vitamins are very sensitive substances and will be destroyed immediately when exposed to light, heat, humidity, and air, so special care should be taken when processing, storing, and eating.