Introduction to endothelial cells and their functions

Posted June 20, 2019 by Bonnibelle

Endothelial cells are a thin layer of specialized epithelial cells, which are composed of a layer of flat cells with a polygonal shape. The edges of the cells are jagged and intermingled.

What are endothelial cells?

Endothelial cells are a thin layer of specialized epithelial cells, which are composed of a layer of flat cells with a polygonal shape. The edges of the cells are jagged and intermingled. They are distributed in organs such as brain, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and spleen. Some of them have a common name for phagocytic cells, which devour foreign bodies, bacteria, necrotic and aging tissues, and participate in collective immune activities. It forms the inner wall of the blood vessel and is the interface between the blood in the lumen of the blood vessel and other blood vessel walls (single layer of squamous epithelium).

Endothelial cells are along the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest microvessels.

The endothelial cells on the inner surface of the heart are called the endocardium. Microvascular and lymphatic microtubules are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells.

Endothelial tissue is a special epithelial tissue, and epithelial tissue is one of the four biological tissues of animals.

What are endothelial cell functions?

Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are located between plasma and vascular tissue. They not only complete the metabolic exchange of plasma and tissue fluid, but also synthesize and secrete various biologically active substances to ensure normal contraction and relaxation of blood vessels and maintain vascular tone. It regulates blood pressure and special functions such as blood coagulation and anticoagulation balance, thereby maintaining normal blood flow and long-term patency of blood vessels. Endothelial cellulization of anticoagulant material can reduce thrombus formation and platelet activation.

Complete endothelial cellization is the best anticoagulation, and the surface vascular endothelium is a natural anticoagulant tissue. There are natural anticoagulant components on the endothelial cell membrane, such as heparin, prostaglandin (PGI), nitric oxide, etc., and endothelial cells can synthesize and secrete various endothelium-derived relaxing factors.

Basic physiological function of the endothelium

1. Barrier function: mechanical barrier; selective permeable membrane to maintain the resting state of collagen and glycoprotein in the basal membrane of the vascular base, preventing inflammatory cell infiltration, including: a. controlling soluble substances in the blood such as electrolytes, small molecules and various plasma macromolecules and blood cell components such as leukocytes, red blood cells, etc., disorderly invade the subendothelial tissue; b. inhibit the migration and proliferation of vascular wall cells
2. Secretion function: including: a. regulates vasomotor; b. prevents platelet and blood cell adhesion, thrombosis; c. regulates the growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC);
3. Conversion, inactivation, and conduction
Endothelial cells categories

Endothelial cells are involved in a variety of vascular biology categories, including:
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation, thereby controlling blood pressure;
Coagulation, anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (thrombosis and fibrinolysis);
Inflammation and swelling (edema).
Endothelial cells also control substances such as white blood cells that enter and exit blood vessels.
In some organs, some highly differentiated endothelial cells are responsible for special filtration functions. Examples include glomeruli and cerebral vascular barriers.
At Creative Bioarray, the company provides a reliable and reproducible endothelial cell resources for vascular disease modeling, drug screening, and vascular tissue engineering applications.

Endothelial cells from Creative Bioarray have been isolated from human normal, diseased donors of various tissues and animals such as mouse, rat, monkey and bovine with high purity, low passage, rigorous characterization and performance tested. Those cells have numerous applications as below:

Vascular Biology
Blood clotting
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Tubule formation assays
At Creative Bioarray, the company offers high-quality Endothelial Cell Growth Medium to support scientific research too.
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Last Updated June 20, 2019