Abstract: Receptors are a type of cell that exists in the cell membrane or intracellular, and can be associated with extracellular specific signaling molecules Special proteins that bind to a series of biochemical reactions in the cell to produce a corresponding effect on the external stimulus. The biologically active substances that bind to the receptor are collectively referred to as ligands. When the receptor binds to the ligand, a molecular conformational change occurs; this causes a cellular response, such as mediating intercellular signal transduction, intercellular adhesion, and endocytosis etc. Receptor technology has two main applications. First, using biotechnology to mimic the stereo configuration of receptors, producing receptor mimics or anti-receptor antibodies or receptor agonists, applied to animals to improve livestock growth and production performance, reduce costs, and improve The quality of livestock and poultry products or the reduction of diseases in livestock production. The second is to use a cell membrane receptor isolated from the organ as a model to study drugs in vitro. The application of receptor technology to develop new drugs has improved the efficiency of screening and the development of new drugs, and has enabled drug research to enter a new era. It has to be mentioned that chimeric antigen receptor has become a major branch of receptor technology, and its medical applications have attracted more and more scientists to explore its secrets.
Keywords: receptor technology, new drug screening, traditional Chinese medicine research
Ø Application of receptor technology in animal husbandry
Modern livestock production is constrained by two factors. First, the demand for livestock products is growing, and second, production resources are increasingly scarce. How to improve the efficiency of livestock production under the conditions of existing livestock and poultry germplasm resources and feed resources is the central content in livestock production. Starting from the growth principle and disease resistance mechanism of livestock and poultry, the use of simple, practical and effective biological technology to promote the growth of livestock and poultry and enhance the disease resistance of livestock and poultry has become a new direction for animal husbandry research and animal husbandry production. Among them, receptor technology has opened up a new field for biotechnology.
u Growth hormone receptor immunity and livestock growth
The growth of animals is largely regulated by various genetic and acquired factors through the endocrine system. In general, the hypothalamic secretion of growth hormone releasing hormone and growth hormone releasing inhibitory hormone regulate the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the anterior pituitary. GH acts on receptors in various tissues (muscles, bone vessels, fats, etc.) and exerts different regulatory effects on the growth and metabolism of these tissues. Studies have shown that many hormone receptor antibodies have the corresponding biological effects of hormones. Therefore, growth hormone receptor immunotechnology promotes the growth of livestock and poultry is a biotechnological approach that can be explored.
u Man Nan oligosaccharides and livestock diseases
Prevention and control of gastrointestinal diseases such as Escherichia coli and Sabina in livestock and poultry are important links in livestock production. The use of antibiotics and other drugs in the feed has an effect on inhibiting intestinal pathogenic bacteria, but it causes drug residues in the animal products and the resistance of pathogenic vaccines to reduce the quality. Studies have shown that pathogenic bacteria have a chitin-like structure on the cell surface or the villus, which recognizes specific carbohydrate receptors on the cells of the intestinal wall of animals and binds to receptors to develop and multiply on the intestinal wall, leading to intestinal diseases. The mannose oligosaccharide extracted from the cell wall of the specific yeast strain is similar to the receptor structure of the pathogenic vaccine on the intestinal wall, and the chitin on the surface of the cell membrane of the pathogen has strong binding ability and is competitive. The ground combines with the pathogen, so that the pathogen cannot adhere to the intestinal wall of the animal, the painful bacteria cannot get the nutrients needed for growth, hunger death, loss of pathogenicity.
Ø Application of Receptor Technology in Drug Screening
The discovery of pharmaceutically active substances during drug research is an extremely important process. One of the biggest challenges facing the current development of new drugs is in drug screening. Obviously, the more advanced the drug screening model, the higher the probability of discovering new drugs and the faster the development of new drugs.
Receptor technology (RT) is the use of cell membrane receptors or cloned receptors isolated from organs or tissues as a model to study drugs in vitro. Most of the receptors are lipoproteins or glycoproteins embedded in the cell membrane. The drugs acting on the receptors may be agonists that act similarly to endogenous substances, or they may act as blocking antagonists. Many drugs are receptors. The use of receptor screening or ligand binding screening to detect various receptor agonists or antagonists is a new technology that has emerged in recent years.
Efficient receptor screening methods are carried out in stages, and a large number of compounds are first screened. The results of the primary screening are expressed in the form of "yes" or "no", reflecting whether the compound has an affinity for the target receptor. Then, the active compound which is "screened" for the initial screening is tested for strength, and several concentrations are set to obtain a half inhibition concentration and dissociation constant of the active compound, and the intensity of the action of the compound is described and compared with the existing similar drugs to determine whether to enter Human specific screening. Specific screening typically uses 30 to 40 different receptors and known agonists and antagonists to determine the cross-reactivity and potential risk of the active compound.
Ø Close connection between receptor technology and traditional Chinese medicine research
As a new tool for drug research today, receptor technology is having a huge impact on the research and development of new drugs. The application prospect of receptor technology in the screening and research of Chinese herbal medicine is very optimistic, which will enable the screening of new Chinese medicines from traditional animal models to the molecular level of micro-receptor screening, which will greatly improve the research of new drugs in China. And the level of development, so that the study of new Chinese medicines into the new stage of high-efficiency screening.
Receptors have been confirmed to be a key mechanism of action for many specific drugs. Among the discovered drug targets (nearly 500), 50% are receptors, and receptor-binding pharmacological models and receptor binding analysis techniques. The route is internationally recognized. In view of the highly sensitive, specific, rapid, and microeconomic characteristics of the receptor-binding pharmacology model, it can be used for the detection of toxic and active components of traditional Chinese medicine, the mechanism of action, and the prediction of the edge effect of active ingredients; The standardized Chinese medicine quality control method is conducive to the development and development of high-efficiency and specific modern Chinese medicine clinical new drugs.
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